The Republic(理想国)

2020年2月23日
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Intro:

The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, authored by Plato around 375 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man. It is Plato’s best-known work, and has proven to be one of the world’s most influential works of philosophy and political theory, both intellectually and historically.

In the dialogue, Socrates talks with various Athenians and foreigners about the meaning of justice and whether the just man is happier than the unjust man. They consider the natures of existing regimes and then propose a series of different, hypothetical cities in comparison, culminating in Kallipolis (Καλλίπολις), a city-state ruled by a philosopher king. They also discuss the theory of forms, the immortality of the soul, and the role of the philosopher and of poetry in society.The dialogue’s setting seems to be during the Peloponnesian War.

《理想国》(共和国,希腊语:Πολιτεία,波兰语;拉丁语:Res Publica)是苏格拉底式的对话,由柏拉图(Plato)在公元前375年左右撰写,涉及正义(δικαιοσύνη),正义城市国家的秩序和特征以及正义者。 这是柏拉图最著名的作品,无论是从思想上还是从历史上来看,都是世界上最具影响力的哲学和政治理论著作之一。

在对话中,苏格拉底与各种雅典人和外国人讨论了正义的含义,以及正义者是否比不正义者更快乐。 他们考虑了现有政权的性质,然后提出了一系列不同的假设城市进行比较,最终达到了由哲学家国王统治的城市州卡利波利斯(Kallipolis)。 他们还讨论了形式理论,灵魂的永生性以及哲学家和诗歌在社会中的作用。对话的背景似乎发生在伯罗奔尼撒战争期间。

Author:

Plato was an Athenian philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought, and the Academy, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

He is widely considered the pivotal figure in the history of Ancient Greek and Western philosophy, along with his teacher, Socrates, and his most famous student, Aristotle.

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