Guiguzi

Guiguzi as illustrated in the book《仙佛奇踪》in AD 1602 [1]

Guiguzi (鬼谷子), also called Baihece (simplified Chinese: 捭阖策; traditional Chinese: 捭闔策; pinyin: bǎihécè), is a collection of ancient Chinese texts compiled between the late Warring States period and the end of the Han Dynasty. The work, between 6,000–7,000 Chinese characters, discusses techniques of rhetoric. Although originally associated with the School of Diplomacy, the Guiguzi was later integrated into the Daoist canon.

The set of books is also sometimes called Benjing yinfu qishu (simplified Chinese: 本经阴符七术; traditional Chinese: 本經陰符七術; pinyin: běnjīng yīnfú qīshù).

Author

The author is referred to as the eponymous Guiguzi, active near the 4th century BC. The name translates literally to 'Sage of Ghost Valley'.

There are many theories about Guiguzi's origin. One hypothesizes him to be from the nation of Wey (present day Henan province); the other claims him to be from Yedi (邺地) (present day Hebei) in the state of Wei. Other theories attribute his origin to either the city of Dancheng in ancient nation of Chen, or near the county of Yunyang (Shaanxi) on the bank of the Han River.

During the Wei and Jin dynasties, people regarded him as a hermit and a Taoist priest who lived away from the masses in the Ghost Valley (鬼谷).[2][3]

Guiguzi is also one of the tutelary spirits claimed by the founder of Weixinism, in recent years.

Research

There has been much speculation about the identity of the writer of Guiguzi and the authenticity of the work as a whole.[4] While there has been no final outcome to this discussion, Chinese scholars believe that the compilation reflects a genuine corpus of Warring States period writings on political lobbying. While most writers doubt the assertion that the Guiguzi was written by a single personality, the Records of the Grand Historian do refer to a Guigu Xiansheng (鬼谷先生, i.e., Mr. Guigu) who taught persuaders Su Qin and Zhang Yi.[5] Thus, this Guigu is traditionally considered the founder of the School of Diplomacy (縱橫家; Zònghéngjiā), a school of thought which was particularly interested in rhetoric.[6] Guigu Xiansheng is also said to have taught famous Warring States generals Sun Bin and Pang Juan.[4]

The association of the name Wang Xu (王詡) is not generally held to be supported.[4] Whereas books I and II are attributed to the same author, Book III is likely an addition by a later author.[7] There is no material in the text to support the view held by some that Guiguzi is a book on military tactics.

Contents

Principles of rhetoric and persuasion taught in Guiguzi include keeping oneself hidden and silent so that the counterpart cannot see what one is doing. Ideally, the counterpart should be convinced that his decisions were made all by himself. This is considered as the ideal course to follow.[8] Coercion or sacrificing oneself to achieve the intended purpose is not recommended.[9]

Compared to western philosophy, parallels can be made between the teachings of Guiguzi with those of Machiavelli. [10]

Guiguzi comprises three books, with chapters on different strategies of observation and persuasion.[11]

Chapter Title Chinese Title
Book I
1 "Open-Shut" Bǎi hé 捭闔
2 "Reflect-Respond" Fǎnyìng 反應
3 "Affect-Fortify" Nèi Qián 内揵
4 "Mend-Break" Dǐ Xī 抵巇
Book II
1 "Captivate-Capture" Fēi Qián 飛箝
2 "Resist-Reconcile" Wǔ Hé 忤合
3 "Weighing" Chuāi
4 "Gauging"
5 "Assessing" Quán
6 "Deploying" Móu
7 "Decision-Making" Jué
8 "Fundamental Principles" Fú Yán 符言
9 "Rotation of Small Shots" Zhuǎn Wán 轉丸
10 "Solution to Disorder" Qū luàn 胠亂
Book III
1 "The Primary Doctrine on the Seven Arts of the Yin Mystique" Běn Jīng Yīn Fú Qī Piān
本經陰符七篇
2 "Holding the Pivot" Chí Shū 持樞
3 "The Central Doctrine" Zhōng Jīng 中經

Translations

There have been translations of Guiguzi into modern Chinese, German, English, and Russian (see below). Almost all modern annotated texts and western translations rely heavily on the explanations of the texts attributed to the Eastern Jin scholar Tao Hongjing.[12]

References

  1. ^ zh:仙佛奇蹤  – via Wikisource.
  2. ^ 袁淑《真隱傳》:「鬼谷先生,不知何許人也,隱居韜智,居鬼谷山,因以為稱。」
  3. ^ 《抱朴子》:“老子,无为者也,鬼谷,终隐者也,而著其书,咸论世务。何必身居其位,然后乃言其事乎”
  4. ^ a b c Wu, Hui (2016). Guiguzi, China's First Treatise on Rhetoric: A Critical Translation and Commentary. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. p. 9. ISBN 9780809335268.
  5. ^ Wu, Hui (2016). Guiguzi, China's First Treatise on Rhetoric: A Critical Translation and Commentary. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. p. 11. ISBN 9780809335268.
  6. ^ Feng, Youlan (1983). A history of Chinese philosophy. Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02021-3.
  7. ^ Wu, Hui (2016). Guiguzi, China's First Treatise on Rhetoric: A Critical Translation and Commentary. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. p. 90. ISBN 9780809335268.
  8. ^ Wu, Hui; Swearingen, C. Jan (2016-08-10). "Interality as a Key to Deciphering Guiguzi: A Challenge to Critics". Canadian Journal of Communication. 41 (3): 503–519. doi:10.22230/cjc.2016v41n3a3187. ISSN 0705-3657.
  9. ^ "《鬼谷子》第3节 鬼谷子其书:处世交际的实用指南【学国学网】". YouTube. 2024-03-06. Retrieved 2024-04-14.
  10. ^ Henkel, Jeremy (2006). A Treatise on Efficacy: Between Western and Chinese Thinking (review). Philosophy East and West 56 (2):347-451.
  11. ^ Wu, Hui (2016). Guiguzi, China's First Treatise on Rhetoric: A Critical Translation and Commentary. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. pp. vii–viii. ISBN 9780809335268.
  12. ^ Wu, Hui (2016). Guiguzi, China's First Treatise on Rhetoric: A Critical Translation and Commentary. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780809335268.

Further reading

  • 蕭登福《鬼谷子研究》. 2001 文津出版社
  • 陈宇《鬼谷子兵法破解》. ISBN 7-5065-4584-5/E.2024
  • Guiguzi, China's First Treatise on Rhetoric: A Critical Translation and Commentary. Trans. Hui Wu. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University Press, 2016.
  • Thunder in the Sky: Secrets on the Acquisition and Exercise of Power. Trans. Thomas Cleary. Boston: Shambbala Books, 1994.
  • Michael Robert Borschat. "'Guiguzi': A Textual Study and Translation". University of Washington Ph.D. Thesis, 1985.
  • Chung Se Kimm, "Kuei-Kuh-Tse: Der Philosoph vom Teufelstal," 1927.
  • Robert van Gulik: 'Kuei-ku-tzu, The Philosopher of the Ghost Vale", "China", XIII, no 2 (May 1939).
  • «Гуй Гу-цзы». В кн: Искусство управления. Сост., пер., вступ. ст. и коммент. В.В. Малявина. М.: «Издательство Астрель»: «Издательство АСТ», 2003. С.244-318.
  • Xu Fuhong. Guiguzi Yan Jiu. Shanghai: Shanghai Classics Press, 2008.
  • Xu Fuhong. Guiguzi Jijiao Jizhu. Beihing: Zhonghua shuju, 2008.
  • Chen Puqing, Guiguzi xiangjie. Changsha, Hunan: Yuelu Press, 2005.
  • Du Yong. "On the Time Record of Guiguzi." Journal of Tianjing Normal University:; Social Science 170.6 (2003): 30-32.
  • Xiao Yuhan. Guiguzi zhuaqi: Quan jie zhanguo diyi quiren mieguozhishu. Beijing: Tuanjie shubanshe, 2002.
  • Xiao Dengfu. Guiguzi Yan Jiu. Taibei, Taiwan: Wenjin Press, 2001.
  • Daniel Coyle. "Guiguzi: On the Cosmological Axes of Chinese Persuasion." Dissertation. University of Hawaii, 1999.
  • Fang Lizhong. Guiguzi quanshu. Beijing: Shumu wenxian chubanshe, 1993.
  • Zhang Jianguo. Guiguzi shiyong zhimou daquan. Beijing: Meteorological Press, 1993.
  • Zhang Shixin. "Demystifying Guiguzi." Journal of Zhejiang Teachers University: Social Science Edition 2 (1990): 42-47.

External links

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