Mount Danxia (Chinese: ; pinyin: Dānxiá Shān) is a noted scenic mountainous area in Renhua County, in the northern part of Guangdong province. It is described on the local signage as a "world famous UNESCO geopark of China". It was inscribed as part of the China Danxia World Heritage Site in 2010 because of its unique geographical in formations and spectacular scenery.[1]


The Danxia area is formed from a reddish sandstone which has been eroded over time into a series of outcrops surrounded by spectacular cliffs and many unusual rock formations known as the Danxia landform. There are a number of temples located on the mountains and many scenic walks can be undertaken. There is also a river winding through the mountains on which boat trips can be taken.


Cliffs at Danxia Range

Mount of Danxia is identified by multi-layered red sedimentary rocks of sandstone and conglomerate, and the area of was formed by the fluvial deposition through the basin 140-65 million years ago. The weather in Danxia area assist the oxidation reaction in rocks, and turned the color of them into red. Then these sediments were uplifted and condescend by water, and being accreted during the process. Finally, the area of Danxia was formed.[2] Since six million years ago, the basin of Danxia area has experienced several intermittent rises, which average increase of about one metre (3 ft) per 10,000 years. With the favor of water washing by the river, the mount of Danxia is cut into many layers, and formed the mount of Danxia nowadays.[3]

Rock formations

Among other attractions that make the Danxia range interesting, the area has the following characteristic stone formations:

  • Yang Yuan Stone, (Yangyuan "male/father stone") bearing a remarkable resemblance to a phallus
  • Yin Yuan Stone or Yinyuan hole, which somewhat resembles a vulva.
  • Breasts Stone, human breast-shaped rocky outcrops on a cliff hanging 30 metres (98 ft) above the ground.[4]
  • Sleeping Beauty, a rocky range resembling a sleeping maiden.[5]


River at Danxia

Mount Danxia is located on the southern side of the Nan Mountains, and it is in the subtropical southern margin, which is the humid subtropical climate.[citation needed]


The annual average temperature of Danxia Mountain is 19.7 °C (67.5 °F), the extreme minimum temperature is −5.4 °C (22.3 °F), the extreme maximum temperature is 40.9 °C (105.6 °F), and the maximum monthly average day is 18.8 °C (65.8 °F). The hottest month is July which has an average temperature of 28.3 °C (82.9 °F), and the coldest month has an average temperature of 9.5 °C (49.1 °F). The average temperature in autumn is higher than spring's.[6]


The total annual hour of sunshine in Danxia Mountain is 1,721 hours annually, the solar radiation is 107 kcal/cm2 (2,900 kJ/sq in), and the average sunshine hours are 4.7 hours per day. More sunshine from July to September, less from February to April.[6]


The yearly average precipitation is 1,715 mm (67.5 in), and the precipitation period is 172 days annually. The precipitation from March to August is about the 75% of total precipitation in a year, and the most concentrated precipitation is from April to June, which is about 48% precipitation of a year. The maximum annually precipitation in history is 2,185 mm (86.0 in) 1994, and the minimum precipitation is 1,150 mm (45 in) in 1963.[6]


The average absolute humidity of Danxia mount is 19.8mb, and the relative humidity is 81%.[6]

Natural resources


The flora of Danxia Mountain is mainly composed by the tropical and subtropical flora, but lacks the typical tropical genus, and the amount of the moss is relatively large. The landform of DanXia has significant effects on the growth of plants. Since the mount of DanXia has many deep valleys, grooves, the environment of Danxia is moisture, which in favor of the growth of moss.[7] Also, The special landscape and the humid monsoon climate permit the growth of evergreen broadleaf forests, endemic plants, endangered and new species such as Danxia Viola, Danxia orchid, Danxia Firmiana and Danxia Chiritopsis.[2]


Various wild animals exist in the mount of Danxia, including 88 species of mammals, 288 species of birds, 86 species of reptiles, 37 species (or subspecies) of amphibians, 100 species or subspecies of fish, and 1023 species of insects. Also, there are 59 species of animals, in Danxia mountain, enlisted in the "Red List of China Species"; 73 species of animals enlisted in the IUCN Red List ; 66 species enlisted in CITES.[8]

Ancient heritage

On the margin of the southwest Danxia basin, a cracked skull was found, and the evidence shows that it is the skull of a Maba man, which is around 30,000 years old.[9]


See also


  1. ^ "China Danxia". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 14 Apr 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Danxiashan | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  3. ^ "韶关丹霞山_商业频道_凤凰网". Retrieved 2019-06-23.
  4. ^ Guangdong - Danxia Mountain Pictures Archived 2013-05-20 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Danxia Range - Sleeping Maiden Archived 2015-02-21 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ a b c d "丹霞山气候介绍". Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  7. ^ 刘蔚秋 李植华 刘兰芳 丹霞山风景地貌的植物区系研究 1999 年 2 月
  8. ^ "中国红石公园--丹霞山 中国旅游报2009/12/01期 第一版面".
  9. ^ Hays, Jeffrey. "MODERN HUMANS IN CHINA | Facts and Details". Retrieved 2019-06-26.

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