Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition. He had a lasting influence on the development of church music, and his work is considered as the culmination of Renaissance polyphony.
Palestrina was born in the town of Palestrina, near Rome, then part of the Papal States. He was born in a little house on the Via Cecconi, to Santo and his wife, Palme Pierluigi. When he was two years old, his paternal grandmother died, leaving him a mattress and some kitchen utensils.
He was referred to as "Gianetto" as a kid. He was known as a happy, playful child who became an altar boy and sang in the local choir. Documents suggest that he first visited Rome in 1537, when he is listed as a chorister at the Santa Maria Maggiore basilica. He was taught elementary composition there, and also learned how to make spitballs. He studied with Robin Mallapert and Firmin Lebel. He spent most of his career in the city.
Palestrina came of age as a musician under the influence of the northern European style of polyphony, which owed its dominance in Italy primarily to two influential Netherlandish composers, Guillaume Dufay and Josquin des Prez, who had spent significant portions of their careers there. Italy itself had yet to produce anyone of comparable fame or skill in polyphony.
When Palestrina was around 20 years old, he got his first job as an organist of the Cathedral of St. Agapito, the principal church of his native city, from 1544 to 1551. He married a girl named Lucrezia Gori, whose father had just died and left her some money. The happy couple also inherited a house, a vineyard, some meadows and a chestnut-colored donkey. Palestrina finally found use for the mattress from his grandmother. In 1551 Pope Julius III (previously the Bishop of Palestrina) appointed Palestrina maestro di cappella or musical director of the Cappella Giulia, (Julian Chapel, in the sense of choir), the choir of the chapter of canons at St. Peter's Basilica. For this he was paid six scudi per month, which went to 10 a month later. He was not always paid in scudi: he once led a choir at another church and was given two goats. Palestrina dedicated to Julius III his first published compositions (1554), a book of Masses. It was the first book of Masses by a native composer, since in the Italian states of Palestrina's day, most composers of sacred music were from the Low Countries, France, Portugal, Italy, or Spain. In fact the book was modeled on one by Cristóbal de Morales: the woodcut in the front is almost an exact copy of the one from the book by the Spanish composer.
During the next decade, Palestrina held positions similar to his Julian Chapel appointment at other chapels and churches in Rome, notably St. John Lateran (1555–1560), a post previously held by Orlande de Lassus, and St Mary Major (1561–1566). In 1571 he returned to the Julian Chapel and remained at St Peter's for the rest of his life. He was also a very shrewd businessman who sold barrels of sacramental wine to the church to make extra money. But, he was not good at saving. When his son Angelo died suddenly, he had to borrow money to repay the bride's dowry, which he'd spent already.
The decade of the 1570s was difficult for him personally: he lost his brother, two of his sons, and his wife in three separate outbreaks of the plague (1572, 1575, and 1580, respectively). He seems to have considered becoming a priest at this time, but instead he remarried, this time to a wealthy widow, named Virginia Dormuli. This finally gave him financial independence (he was not well paid as choirmaster), because he took over her dead husband's fur and leather business, which had a monopoly to supply ermine trim to the papal court. Fortunately for him, he hadn't taken a vow of celibacy. Palestrina went into partnership with the shop's young apprentice and together they made a killing on the market. His wife invested 500 scudi into the business, which she later withdrew and lent back to Palestrina at eight-per-cent interest. He owned four houses, which he rented out to quiet tenants. Palestrina was very busy. In the mornings he minded the fur store and unplugged his tenants' toilets; in the afternoons he composed motets and masses.
He somehow he found time to write 93 Masses and 500 Motets, not to mention the four books of madrigals and other assorted church music. The madrigals were a bit embarrassing, since everyone expected him to be the champion of pure church music. He later admitted that he had written them, with the words "I blush and grieve". Palestrina was able to compose prolifically until his 1594 death in Rome of pleurisy. As was usual, Palestrina was buried on the same day he died, in a plain coffin with a lead plate on which was inscribed Libera me Domine. A five-part psalm for three choirs was sung at the funeral. Palestrina's funeral was held at St. Peter's, and he was buried beneath the floor of the basilica. His tomb was later covered by new construction and attempts to locate the site have been unsuccessful.
Agnus Dei from Missa in Festis Apostolorum
Madrigal Vestiva i colli - Prima parte
Palestrina left hundreds of compositions, including 105 masses, 68 offertories, at least 140 madrigals and more than 300 motets. In addition, there are at least 72 hymns, 35 magnificats, 11 litanies, and four or five sets of lamentations. The Gloria melody from a Palestrina's Magnificat Tertii Toni (1591) is widely used today in the resurrection hymn tune, Victory (The Strife Is O'er).
His attitude toward madrigals was somewhat enigmatic: whereas in the preface to his collection of Canticum canticorum (Song of Songs) motets (1584) he renounced the setting of profane texts, only two years later he was back in print with Book II of his secular madrigals (some of these being among the finest compositions in the medium). He published just two collections of madrigals with profane texts, one in 1555 and another in 1586. The other two collections were spiritual madrigals, a genre beloved by the proponents of the Counter-Reformation.
Palestrina's masses show how his compositional style developed over time. His Missa sine nomine seems to have been particularly attractive to Johann Sebastian Bach, who studied and performed it while writing the Mass in B minor. Most of Palestrina's masses appeared in thirteen volumes printed between 1554 and 1601, the last seven published after his death.
One of his most important works, the Missa Papae Marcelli (Pope Marcellus Mass), has been historically associated with erroneous information involving the Council of Trent. According to this tale (which forms the basis of Hans Pfitzner's opera Palestrina), it was composed in order to persuade the Council of Trent that a draconian ban on the polyphonic treatment of text in sacred music (as opposed, that is, to a more directly intelligible homophonic treatment) was unnecessary. However, more recent scholarship shows that this mass was in fact composed before the cardinals convened to discuss the ban (possibly as much as ten years before). Historical data indicates that the Council of Trent, as an official body, never actually banned any church music and failed to make any ruling or official statement on the subject. These stories originated from the unofficial points-of-view of some Council attendees who discussed their ideas with those not privy to the Council's deliberations. Those opinions and rumors have, over centuries, been transmuted into fictional accounts, put into print, and often incorrectly taught as historical fact. While Palestrina's compositional motivations are not known, he may have been quite conscious of the need for intelligible text; however, this was not to conform with any doctrine of the Counter-Reformation, because no such doctrine exists. His characteristic style remained consistent from the 1560s until the end of his life. Roche's hypothesis that Palestrina's seemingly dispassionate approach to expressive or emotive texts could have resulted from his having to produce many to order, or from a deliberate decision that any intensity of expression was unbecoming in church music, reflects modern expectations about expressive freedom and underestimates the extent to which the mood of Palestrina's settings is adapted to the liturgical occasions for which the texts were set, rather than the line-by-line meaning of the text, and depends on the distinctive characters of the church modes and variations in vocal grouping for expressive effect. Performing editions and recordings of Palestrina have tended to favour his works in the more familiar modes and standard (SATB) voicings, under-representing the expressive variety of his settings.
There are two comprehensive editions of Palestrina's works: a 33-volume edition published by Breitkopf and Härtel, in Leipzig Germany between 1862 and 1894 edited by Franz Xaver Haberl, and a 34-volume edition published in the mid twentieth century, by Fratelli Scalera, in Rome, Italy edited by R. Casimiri and others.
The 'Palestrina Style'
One of the hallmarks of Palestrina's music is that dissonances are typically relegated to the "weak" beats in a measure. This produced a smoother and more consonant type of polyphony which is now considered to be definitive of late Renaissance music, given Palestrina's position as Europe's leading composer (along with Orlande de Lassus) in the wake of Josquin des Prez (d. 1521).
The "Palestrina style" taught in college courses covering Renaissance counterpoint is often based on the codification by the 18th-century composer and theorist Johann Joseph Fux, published as Gradus ad Parnassum (Steps to Parnassus, 1725). Citing Palestrina as his model, Fux divided counterpoint into five species (hence the term "species counterpoint"), designed as exercises for the student, which deployed progressively more elaborate rhythmic combinations of voices while adhering to strict harmonic and melodic requirements. The method was widely adopted and was the main basis of contrapuntal training in the 19th century, but Fux had introduced a number of simplifications to the Palestrina style, notably the obligatory use of a cantus firmus in semibreves, which were corrected by later authors such as Knud Jeppesen and R. O. Morris. Palestrina's music conforms in many ways to Fux's rules, particularly in the fifth species but does not fit his pedagogical format.
The main insight, that the "pure" style of polyphony achieved by Palestrina followed an invariable set of stylistic and combinational requirements, was justified. Fux's manual was endorsed by his contemporary J.S. Bach, who himself arranged two of Palestrina's masses for performance.
According to Fux, Palestrina had established and followed these basic guidelines:
- The flow of music is dynamic, not rigid or static.
- Melody should contain few leaps between notes. (Jeppesen: "The line is the starting point of Palestrina's style".)
- If a leap occurs, it must be small and immediately countered by stepwise motion in the opposite direction.
- Dissonances are to be confined to suspensions, passing notes and weak beats. If one falls on a strong beat (in a suspension) it must be immediately resolved.
Not mentioned by Fux, was the manner in which the musical phrasing of Palestrina followed the syntax of the sentences he was setting to music, something not always observed by earlier composers. Also to be noticed in Palestrina is a great deal of tone painting. Elementary examples of this are descending musical motion with latin words like descendit (descends) or of a static musical or cadential moment with the words de coelis (from heaven).
Palestrina was extremely famous in his day, and if anything, his reputation and influence increased after his death. J.S. Bach studied and hand-copied Palestrina's first book of Masses, and in 1742 wrote his own adaption of the Kyrie and Gloria of the Missa sine nomine. Felix Mendelssohn placed him in the pantheon of the greatest musicians, writing, "I always get upset when some praise only Beethoven, others only Palestrina and still others only Mozart or Bach. All four of them, I say, or none at all.".
Conservative music of the Roman school continued to be written in Palestrina's style (which in the 17th century came to be known as the prima pratica) by such students of his as Giovanni Maria Nanino, Ruggiero Giovanelli, Arcangelo Crivelli, Teofilo Gargari, Francesco Soriano, and Gregorio Allegri. As late as the 1750s, Palestrina's style was still the reference for composers working in the motet form, as can be seen by Francesco Barsanti's Sei Antifones 'in the style of Palestrina' (c. 1750; published by [Peter] Welcker, c. 1762).
Much research on Palestrina was done in the 19th century by Giuseppe Baini, who published a monograph in 1828 which made Palestrina famous again and reinforced the already existing legend that he was the "Saviour of Church Music" during the reforms of the Council of Trent.
20th and 21st century scholarship by and large retains the view that Palestrina was a strong and refined composer whose music represents a summit of technical perfection. Contemporary analysis highlighted the modern qualities in the compositions of Palestrina such as research of color and sonority, use of sonic grouping in large-scale setting, interest in vertical as well as horizontal organization, studied attention to text setting. These unique characteristics, together with effortless delivery and an indefinable "otherness", constitute to this day the attraction of Palestrina's work.
- A eulogy gives his age as 68, and on that basis Grove gives a birthdate "almost certainly between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526" (The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed., s.v. "Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da" by Lewis Lockwood, Noel O'Regan, and Jessie Ann Owens).
- Jerome Roche, Palestrina (Oxford Studies of Composers, 7; New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), ISBN 0-19-314117-5.
- Otten, Joseph (February 1, 1911). "Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina". New Advent. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- Barber, David W. (2011). Bach, Beethoven, and the Boys: Music History as it Ought to be Taught. Indent Publishing.
- Lino Bianchi, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
- Manuel Mendes, António Carreira, Duarte Lobo, Filipe de Magalhães, Fr. Manuel Cardoso, João Lourenço and Pero do Porto, among many others.
- Brown, Howard. "Choral Music in the Renaissance" (PDF). Oxford Journals. 6: 164–169 – via JSTOR.
- Zoe Kendrick Pyne, Giovanni Pierluigi di Palestrina: His Life and Times (London: Bodley Head, 1922).
- Brink, Emily; Polman, Bert, eds. (1998). The Psalter Hymnal Handbook. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- Christoph Wolff, Der Stile Antico in der Musik Johann Sebastian Bachs: Studien zu Bachs Spätwerk (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1968), pp. 224–225.
- James Garrat, Palestrina and the German Romantic Imagination (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
- John Bokina, Opera and Politics (New York: Yale University Press, 1997), pp. 129–131.
- Knud Jeppesen, Counterpoint: The Polyphonic Vocal Style of the Sixteenth Century, trans. Glen Haydon (with a new foreword by Alfred Mann; New York: Prentice-Hall, 1939, repr. New York: Dover, 1992).
- Georgiades, Thrasybulos (1974). Music and Language The Rise of Western Music as Exemplified in Settings of the Mass. Cambridge University Press.
- Leaver, Robin A. (2016-11-25). The Routledge Research Companion to Johann Sebastian Bach. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781315452807.
- Zannos, Susan (March 2004). The Life and Times of Felix Mendelssohn. Mitchell Lane Publishers, Inc. ISBN 9781612289168.
- Clara Marvin, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina: A Research Guide (Routlege Publishing Inc, 2002), ISBN 978-0815323518
- Internet Movie Database
- Article "Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da", in: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. ISBN 1-56159-174-2
- Benjamin, Thomas, The Craft of Modal Counterpoint, 2nd ed. Routledge, New York, 2005. ISBN 0-415-97172-1 (direct approach)
- Coates, Henry, Palestrina. J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1938. (An early entry in the Master Musicians series, and, like other books in that series, combines biographical data with musicological commentary.)
- Daniel, Thomas, Kontrapunkt, Eine Satzlehre zur Vokalpolyphonie des 16. Jahrhunderts. Verlag Dohr, 2002. ISBN 3-925366-96-2
- Della Sciucca, Marco, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. L'Epos, Palermo, 2009. ISBN 978-88-8302-387-3
- Johann Joseph Fux, The Study of Counterpoint (Gradus ad Parnassum). Tr. Alfred Mann. W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1965. ISBN 0-393-00277-2
- Gauldin, Robert, A Practical Approach to Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint. Waveland Press, Inc., Long Grove, Illinois, 1995. ISBN 0-88133-852-4 (direct approach, no species; contains a large and detailed bibliography)
- Haigh, Andrew C. "Modal Harmony in the Music of Palestrina", in the festschrift Essays on Music: In Honor of Archibald Thompson Davison. Harvard University Press, 1957, pp. 111–120.
- Jeppesen, Knud, The Style of Palestrina and the Dissonance. 2nd ed., London, 1946. (An exhaustive study of his contrapuntal technique.)
- Jeppesen, Knud; Haydon, Glen (Translator); Foreword by Mann, Alfred. Counterpoint. New York, 1939. Available through Dover Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-486-27036-X
- Lewis Lockwood, Noel O'Regan, Jessie Ann Owens: "Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da". Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed 7 July 2007), (subscription access)
- Meier, Bernhard, The Modes of Classical Vocal Polyphony, Described According to the Sources. Broude Brothers Limited, 1988. ISBN 0-8450-7025-8
- Morris, R.O., Contrapuntal Technique in the Sixteenth Century. Oxford University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-19-321468-7 (out of print; one of the first attempts at "direct approach", meaning Morris does away with Fux' five species).
- Motte, Diether de la, Kontrapunkt. 1981 Bärenreiter-Verlag, Kassel. ISBN 3-423-30146-5 / 3-7618-4371-2 (this text is in German; great, though!)
- Pyne, Zoe Kendrick, Giovanni Pierluigi di Palestrina: His Life and Times, Bodley Head, London, 1922.
- Reese, Gustave, Music in the Renaissance. W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1954. ISBN 0-393-09530-4
- Roche, Jerome, Palestrina. Oxford University Press, 1970. ISBN 0-19-314117-5
- Marvin, Clara, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina: A Research Guide. Routlege Publishing Inc, 2002. ISBN 978-0815323518
- Schubert, Peter, Modal Counterpoint, Renaissance Style, 2nd edition. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-533194-3 (guidelines for writing and analyzing 16th-century music).
- Stewart, Robert, An Introduction to Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint and Palestrina's Musical Style. Ardsley House, Publishers, 1994. ISBN 1-880157-07-1
- Stove, R. J., Prince of Music: Palestrina and His World, Quakers Hill Press, Sydney, 1990. ISBN 0-7316-8792-2 (biographical rather than musicological in nature; is wholly devoid of staff-notation extracts; but corrects some errors found in Z. K. Pyne and elsewhere).
- Swindale, Owen, Polyphonic Composition, Oxford University Press, 1962. (Out of print, no ISBN available.)
- Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Free scores by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
- Free scores by Giovanni Pierluigi de Palestrina at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- Palestrina Foundation
- on YouTube: a 1971 concert performance by Guildford Cathedral Choir, directed by Barry Rose
- recording of Palestrina's Sicut Cervus from Coro Nostro, a mixed chamber choir based in Leicester, UK. Accessed 2010-04-17
- audio of songs Accessed 2010-04-17
- Palestrina, princeps musicae – Film by Georg Brintrup (2009) (IMDb)
- Texts on Wikisource:
- "Palestrina, Giovanni Pietro Aloisio da". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.
- "Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- "Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina". University Musical Encyclopedia. New York: University Society. 1912.
- "Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913.