Tea Terms中英文茶術語

Terms used for describing fresh tea leaves (see below links*):

Fresh Leaf Type茶青類:

tip-tea type芽茶類:


one-tip two-leaf一心二葉

leaf-tea type 葉茶類:

terminal facing-leaf* 對口葉

terminal facing three-leaf對口三葉

Note:  terminal facing-leaf對口葉 is also called (banjhi leaf) in India.

Black Tea Leaf Grading (only used for black tea, in India and nearby.) (see below links*):

Flowery Orange Pekoe 花橙白毫

Orange Pekoe 橙白毫

Pekoe 白毫

Souchong 小種

Pekoe Souchong 白毫小種

Congou 工夫

Bohea 武夷

Fresh Tea Leaf Classification (for all teas, not just black tea.) (see links*):

Tip 芽

First Leaf 第一葉

Second Leaf 第二葉

Third Leaf 第三葉

Fourth Leaf 第四葉

Fifth Leaf 第五葉

Sixth Leaf 第六葉

*Figures and links for figures and explanation:

Pioneering English Translation of Chinese Tea Studies Terminology首創如此英譯的中文茶學術語

5th Lu-Yu Tea Studies Deliberation of Papers Published Journal Conference, Steven R. Jones,

(published by Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute)2010.04ISBN 978-986-84204-1-0

《中英文茶學術語》( 陸羽茶藝股份有限公司 , 2010, ISBN 978-957-9690-06-5 )

Primary Processing初製:

tea plant 茶樹

tea harvesting 采青

two leaf 兩葉

fresh leaves 茶青

withering 萎凋

sun withering 日光萎凋

indoor withering 室內萎凋

laying 作青(includes setting and tossing)

setting 靜置

tossing 攪拌浪青

enzymatic oxidation酶促氧化

fermentation 發酵

oxidation 氧化

fixation 殺青

steaming 蒸青

stir fixation 炒青

hot air fixation 烘青

sun fixation 曬青

rolling 揉捻

light rolling 輕揉

heavy rolling 重揉

cloth rolling 布揉

drying 乾燥

pan firing 炒乾

hot air drying 烘乾

sun drying 曬乾


piling 渥堆

refining 精製

screening 篩分

cutting 剪切

de-stemming 拔梗

shaping 整形

winnowing 風選

blending 拼配

compressing 緊壓


aging 陳放 (by storing)

added processing 加工

roasting 焙火

scenting 熏花


tea beverage 飲料茶


vacuum packaging真空包裝

nitrogen packaging 充氮包裝

shredded-tea bag 碎形小袋茶

whole-leave tea bag 原片小袋茶


The four classifications of tea according to fermentation再把這四大分類細分:

According to the degree of: fermentation, rolling, baking and tea leaf maturity根據製造時發酵,揉捻焙火與採摘時原料成熟度來分類

non-fermented tea :不發酵茶,即綠茶:

post–fermented後發酵茶 即普洱茶,即黑茶:

partially fermented tea 部分發酵茶,半發酵茶,即烏龍茶

completely fermented tea全發酵茶,即紅茶 :

In this table below we have the tea leaves types and the relationship to the kind of tea with the fermentation levels.

Tip or Leaf Type*分成而與或葉茶類芽茶類 Classification of Tea


Degree of Fermentation


leaf-tea type


oolong tea


partial fermentation


tip-tea type


white tea


partial fermentation

部分發酵 (半發酵茶)

tip-tea type


green tea , yellow tea


no fermentation


tip-tea type


black tea


complete fermentation


tip-tea type


Puer tea, dark tea

普洱茶 、   黑茶



*Exceptions:  White Tip Oolong is a “ 芽茶類 tip-tea type”  and Liuan Leaf green tea is a “ 葉茶類 leaf-tea type”, also some of the “ 芽茶類  tip-tea type” teas are actually   “全芽心 all-tip”.

Green Tea Types綠茶分為:

steamed green tea蒸青綠茶

powered green tea 粉末綠茶

silver needle green tea 銀針綠茶

lightly rubbed green tea 原形綠茶

curled green tea 松卷綠茶

sword shaped green tea劍片綠茶

twisted green tea 條形綠茶

pearled green tea 圓珠綠茶

Puer Tea Types普洱茶分為 :

Age-puer 陳放普洱

pile-fermented puer渥堆普洱

Oolong Tea Types烏龍茶分為:

white oolong:白茶烏龍

twisted oolong:條形烏龍

pelleted oolong 球形烏龍

roasted oolong熟火烏龍

white tipped oolong:白毫烏龍

Black Tea Types紅茶分為:

unshredded black tea:功夫紅茶

shredded black tea:碎形紅茶

Scented Tea Types熏花茶可分為:

Any type of tea can be scented.


scented green tea 熏花綠茶

scented puer tea熏花普洱

scented oolong tea 熏花烏龍

scented black tea熏花紅茶

jasmine scented green tea熏花茉莉

Spiced Tea Types調味茶分為:

Any type of tea can be spiced.


spiced green tea 調味綠茶

spiced Puer tea調味普洱

spiced oolong tea調味烏龍

spiced black tea調味紅茶

There are different ways to classify tea, such as the degree of withering or fermentation, type of fresh tea leaf like tips and/or leaves, general color of finished tea leaf, like black tea or green tea.  The following is degree of fermentation based.

Explanation of some tea making processes:

Chinese six major tea types中國六大基本茶類: green, yellow, white, oolong, black, and dark tea.

Any type of tea can be spiced.任何種類的茶都可加以調味。

Spiced Tea 調味茶

Any type of tea can be scented任何種類的茶都可以熏花。.

Scented Tea 熏花茶

oxidation氧化 (enzymatic):  a natural chemical change in the tea leaf that begins after harvesting and accelerates if leaf cells are broken and exposed to oxygen.

withering萎凋:  water loss by respiration and evaporation and leaf becomes more pliable, dryness and heat aid in this process.

fermentation發酵:  actually enzymatic oxidation, noticeable change chemical composition and leaf becomes darker, moisture and heat aid in this process.

fixation殺青:  to rapidly stop the fermentation through water loss caused by heat.

rolling揉捻:  breaking the leaf cell walls exposing sap to leaf substrate and air, and shaping.

drying乾燥:  making the leaves ready for storage.

laying 作青: includes setting and tossing, this step is during the withering/fermentation stage

setting 靜置: letting the fresh leaves rest

tossing 攪拌浪青:  also called shaking (but this is not rolling)

Two different methods of making black tea (in India, Sri Lanka for example):

There are two methods used to rupture the leaf cells prior to fermentation.

orthodox method: the traditional way of making black tea, a batch of leaves go through the  roller and are   macerated and twisted.

CTC(crush-tear-cut) 切碎-撕裂-捲曲method:  leaves are continuously fed through the machine and are rolled and goes through sharp teeth.

切碎-撕裂-捲曲 crush-tear-curl CTC

Using tea jargon fermentation/oxidation, microbe fermentation is called piling, and oxidation is called fermentation.

Key processing factors influencing the variety of tea and developing different tea character:

Green Puer: large leaf variety,  can be aged but it still is green Puer, the thing that makes a Puer is it has to be sun fixed, the aging is an added process, yes it should be aged but it does not have to be it is still a Green Puer at this point, can be compress into cakes, comes from Puer, China.  Regular green tea doesn’t have sun fixation.

Dark tea: sun fixation, piling process, small leaf variety processing similar to dark Puer, also usually aged.

Dark Puer: sun fixation, piling process, large leaf variety, comes from Puer, China.

White tea:  lightly oxidation, but white tea is not high heat fixated it is withered then rolled lightly then dried, many come from in Fuding, China.

Oolong tea:   the degree of laying作青 and fermentation affects the tea character developed, many oolongs are made with indoor withering an example cool long time withering like anshi iron goddess.

Green tea:  fixation is usually pan fixation in China and Taiwan and steam fixation in Japan.

Yellow tea: similar to green tea but has a added swealtering process no added heat the tea is piled up after fixation and rolling for short-time only made in the spring.

Black tea: (key point for all black teas is first rolled/ctc/rupture cell walls then fermentation)

Roasting is an added process/加工, literally any tea can be roasted but it will not change tea type: for example if a green tea is roasted it still is a green tea like the japanese tea (Hojicha/ほうじ茶/番茶). oolongs can be roasted but not necessary, same is for scenting and spicing. see below.

Problems of translating: Taiwan and many parts of China use 初製and 加工:

added processing 加工:  re-drying覆火, aging 陳放 (by storing), roasting 焙火, scenting熏花, spicing調味Added after the tea is one of the main varieties and can’t be changed, for example once it is a green tea it won’t change into a black tea.

Primary processing creates the major tea types, green tea, green puer, dark puer, oolong tea, white tea, dark tea, black tea:

Primary Processing初製from fresh leaves 茶青not all are used: withering萎凋, fermentation發酵, fixation殺青,rolling揉捻,drying乾燥, 渥堆 piling, this is the process that make a tea black or white or other variety.

Main tea processing steps to create different types of tea:

The only ingredient for primary processing is “fresh leaves(tea) 茶青”.    Any other ingredients are used during the added processing of scenting and spicing

fresh leaves 茶青: fixation殺青 > rolling揉捻 > drying乾燥    : green tea綠茶

fresh leaves 茶青:  fixation殺青 > rolling揉捻 > sweltering悶黃 > drying乾燥   :yellow tea黃茶

fresh leaves 茶青:  sun fixation曬青 > rolling揉捻 > sun drying曬乾> (usually aged)   : green Puer青普

fresh leaves 茶青:  sun fixation曬青 > rolling揉捻 > piling 渥堆  > sun drying曬乾   : dark tea黑茶and dark Puer熟普

fresh leaves 茶青:  withering (fermentation) 萎凋  > rolling揉捻 > drying乾燥     : white tea白茶

fresh leaves 茶青:  withering萎凋 > fermentation發酵 > fixation殺青 > rolling揉捻> drying乾燥:oolong tea烏龍茶

fresh leaves 茶青:  withering萎凋 > rolling揉捻 > fermentation發酵 > drying乾燥  : black  tea紅茶

*to be called Puer tea it must go through sun fixation曬青 and sun drying曬乾 .

*black tea rolling can be  twisting, orthodox or CTC

non fermentation:

tea harvesting-  fixation -rolling-shaping- drying

partial fermentation:

tea  harvesting -withering (indoors and outdoors)- fermentation- fixing – rolling-

drying-(optional roasting)

full fermentation:

tea harvest- withering -rolling (twisting, orthodox, CTC)-  fermentation- drying

post fermentation:

piled> tea harvesting- sun fixation -sun drying-  rolling – piling- compress(shaping or loose)- sun drying -(can age)

aged>  tea harvesting- fixation – rolling – compressing –sun drying

This is the flow chart of the primary tea processing of what determines green tea, yellow tea, oolong tea, tea white, tea black, dark tea, green Puer, and dark Puer. This does not include any additional processes such as roasting, scenting and flavoring; since these can be done to any tea:

Added processing 加工:  re-drying覆火, aging 陳放 (by storing), roasting 焙火, scenting熏花, spicing調味Added after the tea is one of the main varieties and can’t be changed, for example once it is a green tea it won’t change into a black tea.

Possible Added Processes

green tea綠茶 :   roasting 焙火; scenting熏花; spicing調味

yellow tea黃茶:  scenting熏花; spicing調味

green Puer青普:  aging 陳放;  spicing調味

dark tea黑茶and dark Puer熟普:   aging 陳放 ; spicing調味

white tea白茶: scenting熏花; spicing調味

oolong tea烏龍茶:   re-drying覆火; aging 陳放; roasting 焙火; scenting熏花; spicing調味

black  tea紅茶: aging 陳放; scenting熏花; spicing調味

Names of Tea常見茶名:

Green Blade 煎茶

Yellow Mountain Fuzz Tip 黃山毛峰

Dragon Well 龍井

Green Spiral 碧螺春

Gunpower Tea 珠茶

Jasmine Tea 茉莉花茶

Rose Bulb 玫瑰繡球

Liuan Leaf 六安瓜片

Tea Powder 茶粉

Fine Powder Tea 抹茶 (matcha)

Jun Mountain Silver Needle 君山銀針

White tip silver needle 銀針白毫

White peony 白牡丹

Long Brow 壽眉

Brow Tea 眉茶

Jade Dew 玉露

White Tip Oolong 白毫烏龍

Wuyi Rock 武夷岩茶

Red Robe tea 大紅袍

White Comb白鷄冠

Gold Turtle水金龜

Iron Monk鐵羅漢

Cassia tea 肉桂 (武夷)

Narcissus 水仙

Finger Citron 佛手

Iron Goddess (TGY) 鐵觀音

Osmanthus Oolong桂花烏龍

Roast Oolong 熟火烏龍

Light Oolong 清茶

Pouchong Tea 包種茶

Dongding Oolong 凍頂

Anji White Leaf 安吉白茶

Fenghuang Unique Bush 鳳凰單從

Ginseng Oolong 人參烏龍茶

Cinnamon Tea肉桂茶

Gongfu Black 工夫紅茶

Smoke Black 煙熏紅茶

Dark Tea黑茶

Age Bowl Puer 青沱

Age Cake Puer青餅

Pile Cake Puer  熟餅

Tea Ware  茶具:

tea cart 茶車

water heater煮水器

water kettle 水壺

tea basin 水盂

tea caddy (canister) 茶罐

tea boat 茶船

teapot 茶壺

cover bowl 蓋碗

tea pad 壺墊

tea pitcher茶盅

lid saucer蓋置

towel tray茶巾盤

tea towel 茶巾

tea holder茶荷

tea brush 茶拂

timer 定時器

tea spoon 茶匙

serving tray奉茶盤

teacup 茶杯

cup saucer杯托

seat cushion座墊

cup cover 杯套

packing wrap包壺巾

tea ware bag 茶具袋

ground pad 地衣

strainer cup 同心杯

personal tea set 個人品茗組(茶具)

brewing vessel 沖泡盅

tea ware 茶器

thermos 熱水瓶

tea urn / jar 茶甕

tea table 茶桌

side table側櫃

tea bowl 茶碗

spout bowl 有流茶碗

heating base煮水器底坐

Tea Brewing 泡茶:

The Three Ts 泡茶三要素

3-Ts = tea, temperature, and time

tea amount 茶量

water temperature 水溫

steeping time 浸泡時間


The Three Ts 泡茶三要素
tea amount 茶量
water temperature 水温
steeping time 浸泡時間


Difference of “gong工” and “kung功”

Kungfu 功夫 (use this one for martial arts武術)

Gongfu 工夫 (use this one tea terminology茶術語)

Gongfu Tea Ceremony 工夫茶

Lu-Yu Small Pot Tea Laws: (24 Rules) 陸羽小壺茶法24則:

  1. prepare tea ware備具
  2. from still to ready position從靜態到動態
  3. prepare water備水
  4. warm pot溫壺
  5. prepare tea備茶
  6. recognize tea識茶
  7. appreciate tea賞茶
  8. warm pitcher溫盅
  9. put in tea置茶
  10. smell fragrance聞香
  11. first infusion沖第一道茶
  12. timing計時
  13. warm cups 燙杯
  14. pour tea 倒茶
  15. prepare cups 備杯
  16. divide tea 分茶
  17. serve tea by cups 端杯奉茶
  18. second infusion 沖第二道茶
  19. serve tea by pitcher 持盅奉茶

19a. supply snacks or water (not necessary) 茶食供應或品泉

  1. take out brewed leaves 去渣

20a. appreciate leaves (not necessary) 賞葉底

  1. rinse pot 涮壺
  2. return to seat 歸位
  3. rinse pitcher 清盅
  4. collect cups收杯

—    conclude 結束


Lu Yu 陸羽  (Tang Dynasty唐代)

“Tea Classic” 《茶經》

Three Scrolls Ten Chapters三卷十章

Tea Classic’s ten chapters茶經的10章

The “Tea Classic” is made of “Three Scrolls Ten Chapters三卷十章”, each chapter is briefly explained below:

One: Origin一之源

This chapter explains  origin legends of tea in China. It also contains a horticultural description of the tea plant and its proper planting as well as some etymological speculation.

Two: Tools二之具

This chapter describes fifteen tools for picking, steaming, pressing, drying and storage of tea leaves and cake.

Three: Making三之造

This chapter details the recommended procedures for the production of tea cake.

Four: Utensils四之器

This chapter describes twenty eight items used in the brewing and drinking of tea.

Five: Boiling五之煮

This chapter enumerates the guidelines for the proper preparation of tea.

Six: Drinking六之飲

This chapter describes the various properties of tea, the history of tea drinking and the various types of tea known in 5th century China.

Seven: History七之事

This chapter gives various anecdotes about the history of tea in Chinese records, from Shennong through the Tang dynasty.

Eight: Growing Regions八之出

This chapter ranks the eight tea producing regions in China.

Nine: Simplify九之略

This chapter lists those procedures that may be omitted and under what circumstances.

Ten: Pictorialize十之圖

This chapter consists of four silk scrolls that provide an abbreviated version of the previous nine chapters.

Lu Yu’s Tea Ware陸羽的茶具:

crushing block 砧椎

brazier 風爐

charcoal basket 炭筥

charcoal mallet 炭檛

fire chopsticks火筴

cauldron 鍑

cauldron stand 交床

tea tongs 夾

paper wallet 紙囊

crushing roller 碾

sieve box 羅合

tea holder 則

water vessel 水方

water filter bag 漉水囊

gourd scooper 瓢

bamboo tongs 竹夾

salt container 鹺簋

boiled water vessel 熟盂

bowl 碗

bowl basket 畚

brush 劄

water basin 滌方

spent tea basin 滓方

tea cloth 巾

utensil table 具列

utensil basket都籃

Old Man Shenan 審安老人 (Shen’an) (Song Dynasty宋代)

“Tea Ware Drawings and Praises” 《茶具圖贊》

Some of the tea wares of Shenan and Lu Yu, have the same Chinese names, because some of the tea wares from tang dynasty were also used in the song dynasty, although Shenan does give them special names, these special names follow pinyin spelling without tones.

Old Man Shenan’s 12 Tea Ware審安老人的12茶具:

brazier 風爐 (hong lu韋鴻臚)

crushing block砧椎 (mu dai zhi木待制)

crushing roller碾 (jin fa cao金法曹)

stone mill*石磨 (shi zhuan yun石轉運  )

gourd scooper瓢 (hu yuan wai胡員外)

sieve box羅合 (luo shu mi羅樞密)

brush札 (zong cong shi宗從事)

bowl basket畚 (qi diao mi ge漆雕秘閣)

bowl碗 (tao bao wen陶寶文)

water vessel水方 (tang ti dian湯提點)

tea whisk*茶筅 (zhu fu shi竺副師)

tea cloth巾 (si zhi fang司職方)

*Note: The above tea wares were also mentioned by Lu Yu except for (stone mill石磨) and  (tea whisk茶筅).

Emperor Song Huizong 宋徽宗(Song Dynasty宋代)

“Da Guan Tea Treaties” 《大觀茶論》

“Literary Gathering” 《文會圖》

Zhu Yuanzhang朱元璋 (明. 1328~1398) (Ming. 1328-1398)

First Ming Dynasty emperor, when he became emperor, to combat corruption in the tea trade, ordered the production stop of the compressed tribute tea貢茶 1391 AD. It was decreed that tea take a simpler and also a less currency-ready form. The coming of loose leaf tea was a vital development for the further innovation in tea arts and culture. His 17th son was “Zhu Quan朱权” that wrote the “Tea Manual茶谱”.

“Tea Manual, 1440” Zhu Quan (Ming. 1378-1448) Imperial Prince

《茶譜》朱權  (明. 1378~1448)

Total of 16 chapters, content below also includes ten tea wares:


Selecting Tea品茶

Storing Tea收茶

Whisking Tea點茶

Scenting Tea Method熏香茶法

Tea Ware 器具

Tea Brazier茶爐

Tea Stove茶竈

Tea Mill茶磨

Crushing Roller茶碾

Tea Sieve茶羅

Tea Stand茶架

Tea Spoon茶匙

Tea Whisk茶筅

Tea Cup茶甌

Tea Pitcher茶瓶

Heating Water Method煎湯法

Classifying Water品水

Tao Gu 陶穀

“Record on Plantation Tea”《苑茗錄》

Cai Xiang 蔡襄

“Record on Tea”《茶錄》

The three popular methods for drinking tea:

boiling tea     煮茶  (Tang Dynasty唐代)

whisking tea  點茶  (Song Dynasty宋代)

brewing tea   泡茶  (Ming Dynasty明代)

Sen no Rikyu (千利休, 1522 – April 21, 1591)

Sen no Rikyu seven rules for the tea ceremony as follows:

  1. Make a pleasing bowl of tea
  2. Lay the charcoal so that the water boils efficiently
  3. Provide a sense of coolness in the summer and warmth in the winter
  4. Arrange the flowers as though they were in the field
  5. Be ready ahead of time
  6. Be prepared in case it should rain
  7. Act with utmost consideration toward your guests

( 利休七則:茶は服のよきように点て,炭は汤の沸くように置き,花は野にあるように,夏は凉しく冬は暖かに, 刻限は早めに,降らずとも雨の用意,相客に心せよ。)


(利休七則: 茶要泡得好,火要能沸水,花似野外生,夏涼而冬暖,準備要提前,雨具要備妥,對陪客貼心。)

Southern Record《南方錄Nanboroku Sen no Rikyu

First Scroll: Memorandum 卷一覚書(jap. Oboegaki)

Second Scroll: Gatherings卷二會(jap. , Kai)

Third Scroll: Shelves卷三 棚 (jap. , Tana)

Fourth Scroll: Academy卷四書院(jap. Shoin)

Fifth Scroll: Layout卷五 台子 (jap. Daisu)

Sixth Scroll: Abridgment卷六墨引(jap. Sumihiki)

Seventh Scroll: Memoirs卷七滅後(jap. Metsugo)

This book is considered the most important book by Rikyu on tea.  Consisting of: Memorandum, Gatherings, Shelves, Schools, Tables, Citations, and Memoirs.  Some say there are two more chapters, together to be a total of nine chapters.  Details of the book’s total chapters are not conclusive.


Principles of Japanese Tea Ceremony

和 Wa: Harmony – with nature as a whole

敬 Kei: Respect – for each other

清Sei: Purity- of utensils and mind

寂 Jaku: Tranquility – with nature and mind

Wabi Sabi

Wabi: cultivation of simplicity, quietude, and absence of ornament

Sabi: celebration of old, faded, and imperfect








8。一期一會(ichi-go ichi-e) one time, one meeting; once in a lifetime

Items of Cha-no-yu

釜 kettle

風炉(コンロ) brazier

敷板 board for the brazier

茶碗 teabowl

棗 container for powdered thin tea

茶杓 teascoop

柄杓 ladle

蓋置(竹) lid rest (bamboo)

茶筅 tea whisk

茶巾 linen cloth

帛紗(白地) silk cloth (white)

懐紙 packet of paper

畳(正方形) mat

屏風(大) screen (tall)

屏風(小) screen (short)

毛氈 carpet

畳カバー cover for mat

茶筅の癖直し fixing for teascoop

水指 fresh-water container

建水 waste-water receptacle

香合 incense container

茶巾 linen cloth

古帛紗 square of classic-patterned fabric

懐紙 packet of paper

道具箱 utensils box

Incense Terminology:

Incense Arts香道 , Kodo

Agarwood 沈香from heartwood from Aquilaria trees, unique, the incense wood most used in incense ceremony, other names are: lignum aloes or aloeswood, gaharu, jinko, or oud

Censer香爐usually small, and used for heating incense not burning

Censer and incense burner, the terms are sometimes interchangeable

Charcoal木炭 only the odorless kind is used

Incense burner香爐usually larger than a censer, and used for burning incense

Incense woods香木a naturally fragrant resinous wood

Leaf-tea type葉茶類tea consisting of the leaves, no tips

Musical terminology borrowed and related to scent:

Sharp notes高頻the first and most volatile scents, quick to dissipate

Round notes中頻the main body scents, dissipating in the middle

Deep notes低頻the finishing scents, lingering and slowest to dissipate

Note: the above musical terms are also used similarly in the perfume industry

Odor – more pleasantly known as, “fragrance, aroma, or scent香”

Olfactory glands嗅腺the glands that are responsible for the sense of smell

Tea incense茶香dry-leaf, pure brew-able and drinkable tea used as incense

Tip-tea type芽茶類tea consisting the young unfurled tips and leaves


  1. 感格鬼神 感は鬼神に格(いた)る – 感覚が鬼や神のように研ぎ澄まされる
  2. 清淨心身 心身を清浄にす – 心身を清く浄化する
  3. 能除汚穢 よく汚穢(おわい)を除く – 穢(けが)れをとりのぞく
  4. 能覺睡眠 よく睡眠を覚ます – 眠気を覚ます
  5. 静中成友 静中に友と成る – 孤独感を拭う
  6. 塵裏偸閑 塵裏に閑(ひま)をぬすむ – 忙しいときも和ませる
  7. 多而不厭 多くして厭(いと)わず – 多くあっても邪魔にならない
  8. 寡而為足 少なくて足れりと為す – 少なくても十分香りを放つ
  9. 久蔵不朽 久しく蔵(たくわ)えて朽ちず – 長い間保存しても朽ちない
  10. 常用無障 常に用いて障(さわり)無し – 常用しても無害

The Ten Virtues of Incense

It brings communication with the transcendent

It refreshes mind and body

It removes impurity

It brings alertness

It is a companion in solitude

In the midst of busy affairs, it brings a moment of peace

When it is plentiful, one never tires of it

When there is little, still one is satisfied

Age does not change its efficacy

Used everyday, it does no harm


*Comprehensive Introduction to Tea Studies (including Chinese-English Tea Terminology); Proceedings of the 13th International Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony and Tea Culture Festival; Pub.:  Ten Ren Tea Arts and Culture Foundation; Date:  2011.05; ISBN:  978-986-84204-2-7

◎綜合研論茶學 (中英文茶之術語) ,第十三屆國際無我茶會 , 暨 國際茶文化節 , 論文集

天仁茶藝文化基金會, 2011.05, ISBN:  978-986-84204-2-7

*“Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology”, (2010), Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute, Co., Ltd., ISBN 978-957-9690-06-5

◎《中英文茶學術語》( 陸羽茶藝股份有限公司 , 2010, ISBN 978-957-9690-06-5 )

* Pioneering English Translation of Chinese Tea Studies Terminology首創如此英譯的中文茶學術語;

5th Lu-Yu Tea Studies Deliberation of Papers Published Journal Conference 李瑞河(published by Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute) 2010.04 ISBN 978-986-84204-1-0

*“Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology”, (2009),Tenfu Tea College, Ctrl No: zyk0030030

◎《中英文”茶學術語”》( 天福茶學院,2009,控制號:zyk0030030 )

*“Specialized English for Tea”, (2008),Tenfu Tea College,Ctrl No: zyk0014462

◎《茶文化系專業英語》( 天福茶學院,2008,控制號:zyk0014462)


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